ticks. What types of ticks are there in Poland and what are the most dangerous? Diseases transmitted by ticks

Ticks are dangerous parasites that can cause Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. There are about 20 species of ticks in Poland. Common ticks and grass ticks are the most common. What types should we pay attention to the most?

The tick season continues in Poland, experts warn. In addition, as Professor Joanna Zaykovskaya, an infectious disease and epidemiology specialist, told TVN24, this year the ticks woke up quite early after the winter. The season for these dangerous arachnids will last until autumn.

Types of ticks in Poland

There are 900 species of ticks in the world. There are about 20 of them in our country, some of which are the most dangerous for humans and animals.

Types of ticks can be divided into hard ticks (Ixodina), called straight and soft. The first of these is characterized by hard armor on the back. It covers the entire back in men and part of it in other stages of development in women. Edges, including soft ticks (Argasidae), there is no armor, including the edges of the pigeons.

Also read: Diagnosis: Every fifth tick is a carrier of Lyme disease

Common ticks

It is the most common tick in Poland and throughout the country, including in forests, parks and gardens. common tick (Ixodes ricinus). He lives in almost all of Europe. This species attacks most people and animals in our country. His illnesses include Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, Q fever, and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE virus). Larvae are most active in April and May-October, fairies (post-larval development), as well as females and males in March-October and November.

Common tick owners are small mammals, birds, lizards, hedgehogs, goats, roe deer, deer, deer, foxes, dogs, cats and humans. These arachnids find their hosts, for example, after being mechanically removed from tall grasses or low bushes. They are usually brown and sometimes orange.

Adult females grow up to one centimeter after drinking blood, previously three to four millimeters long. Males are smaller and reach a length of 3.5 mm. The nymphs are about 1.5 mm long and the larvae are about a millimeter before they take food. Females look for food for three to 14 days.

Common ticksShutterstock

A common tick after drinking bloodShutterstock

Meadow tick

It is another type of tick living in our country meadow tick (Dermacentor reticulatus). The name comes from the place where it originated, that is, from the meadows. It can also be found on the banks of rivers and meadows.

Grass ticks live only in some parts of Poland, including the northeast, partly in the center and in the Lublin region and in the west. It began to spread from the east to the west of Poland in the late 1990s.

Humans rarely own grass mites, mostly dogs and horses, as well as roe deer, deer, elk, wild boar, sheep, and cattle. The grass tick is slightly smaller than a normal tick, its light brown belly is covered with dark spots. Grass ticks carry bacteria, among other things Babesiacauses babesiosis. It is active from February and early March to May and from August to early winter.

Meadow tickShutterstock

Fringes of pigeons

One of the types of ticks found in Poland is the tick fringe of pigeons (Argas reflex), can be found in almost all of Europe. The name is indebted to the fact that most homeowners have pigeons, as well as other birds, including birds. It is rare for human owners.

Unlike the common tick or meadow tick, the most popular habitats for this species are buildings and its warm areas and places where pigeons nest, such as attics.

Men and women measure up to one centimeter when they drink blood, previously they were about five millimeters long. They are gray or gray-brown with dark spots. Their bellies are distinguished by the shape of eggs.

A few years ago, ticks of this species took control of the police station in Poznan. 27 policemen were bitten, four of them had to go on sick leave. The effect of the bite can be bed bugs or flea bites. The edge of the pigeons (also called pigeon ring) stings painfully and redness and itching persists for a long time, an allergic reaction is possible. For example, it transmits Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis, and Q fever.

Rodent ticks and hedgehog ticks

Rodent ticks (Ixodes trianquliceps) occurs mainly in the southern, northern and central parts of the country, in shady areas in mixed and deciduous forests. Its owners include rodents, insect-eating mammals and small predators.

It has similar features hedgehog tick (Ixodes hexagonal), but lives all over Poland. It rarely attacks humans, and in most cases its “victims” are hedgehogs, foxes, umbrellas, polecats, Armenians, dogs and cats.

Diseases transmitted by both types of ticks are tick-borne encephalitis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis.

Dog tick

The species also owes its name to its owner dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), a carrier of babesiosis. It is rare for him to attack people. It comes from Africa and is practically spread in the southern part of Europe. Loves the hottest areas and heated rooms.

It is rarely found in Poland, it is mostly imported from other countries.

Dog tickShutterstock

Polish border

The position was described in 1979 Polish border (Argas polonicus). This species was found in the tower of the Church of St. Mary in Krakow. Krakow is the only place in our country where this tick has been recorded, but the position described in the 1990s is probably no longer available.

Unified positions are described in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Its range of occurrence may be larger, but no observations have been made in this regard.

The main owners of Polish marguerite are pigeons and swallows, but attacks on humans can occur. It lives mainly in buildings, including attics and where pigeons nest.

National forests

National forests

National forests

tvnmeteo.pl, pzh.gov.pl, kleszcz.info, stopasozytom.pl

Main photo source: Shutterstock

Leave a Comment