Natural gas is only 14 percent. Fuels used in Poland’s heating industry, so the suspension of gas supplies from Russia is not a threat to the sector. Veolia Energia Warszawa, WNP.PL President Paweł Orlof says the Polish heating industry can reduce gas and coal consumption, for example by using renewable energy sources and developing low-temperature networks.
- 65% of the fuel used in the Polish heating sector is coal, and only 14% is natural gas.
- The role of renewable sources, rdf and waste heat in the Polish heating sector should increase. It is also worth developing building management systems, so you can reduce the building’s need for heat and electricity.
- Heat extraction from coal and gas will be preferred by EU regulations such as the Fit for 55 package and the Building Energy Directive.
– The heating sector provides about 44% of heat. Residents of Poland. It is mainly systemic heat generated as a result of cogeneration. About 65% is produced this way. The system has heating, the remaining heating plants – says Veolia Energia Warszawa president, who is a guest of the European Economic Congress in Katowice, WNP.PL Paweł Orlof.
According to him, the structure of fuel in the Polish heating sector is 65 percent. The fuel is coal and only 14. percent of it is natural gas.
“Therefore, it seems logical that we should not have problems with gas supply to heating companies,” said Pavel Orlof.
Indifferent potential of the network
He notes that in recent years, discussions on the heating sector have focused mainly on generating facilities, ie cogeneration and heating plants, as well as the type of fuel to be used. In recent years, there has been little talk about a central heating network.
– You need to invest in the heating network, it is a very important asset, and it is an asset that Poland can use in the heating sector to move away from hydrocarbons, – says Paweł Orlof.
According to him, this will be supported by EU regulations, such as the Fit for 55 package and the Directive on energy performance of buildings. In addition to reducing CO2 by 55 percent, it corresponds to 55. By 2030 (compared to 1990) it contains two other important elements. First of all, the end consumer should receive energy by 2030, where 40 percent should be produced from renewable sources.
The second important element of the Fit for 55 package is a 36% increase in energy efficiency by 2030.
– This means that the heating network in Poland has great potential to increase efficiency and has a great potential for the use of dispersed energy based on a closed-circuit economy, ie the use of renewable sources and waste heat – Pavel Orlof adds.
Europe’s largest network
The heating network in Warsaw is about 1,800 km long and is the longest heating network in Europe and the only fully digital heating network in Europe.
– Digitalization has allowed Veolia Energia Warszawa to reduce heat losses by up to 10%, while the average loss in the Polish heating sector is around 12-14%. If the heat loss is reduced, the manufacturer can produce less heat and thus use less fuel, explains Paweł Orlof.
Another important task was to optimize the work of the Warsaw network.
– If a few years ago we changed the water in the system 10 times a year, now we change it 6 times a year. This digitalized, ie smart heating network, reduces transmission losses, so PGNiG Termika limits the production and consumption of coal and gas produced for the Warsaw system, says Pavel Orlof.
– Heating networks in Poland are based on water supply temperatures of about 100-114 degrees Celsius. Denmark and other Scandinavian countries have central heating networks with a water temperature of 30 degrees. This is the difference if we use fuel to heat water from 114 degrees to 30 degrees. This means less fuel, less CO2 emissions and less money we have to spend on coal and gas. Therefore, we must make efforts to move from a high-temperature heating network to a low-temperature heating network, – believes Pavel Orlof.
According to him, surface heat pumps, water heat pumps, seasonal heat accumulators and daytime heat accumulators can be used for the low temperature network.
These devices can be powered by wind farms and solar panels.
Less coal and gas
There are other possibilities in large DH systems. In Warsaw, for example, you can use the waste heat of the subway, where air conditioners work. Sewage and server room waste heat can also be used.
There are also large reserves in the use of rdf (waste fuel). In Warsaw, the installation of the rdf file should be commissioned by the end of 2023 and 2024, which will cover about 7-10 percent. heat demand in the city.
Virtual CHP stations connecting small cogeneration plants with a capacity of up to 2 MW can become an important part of the system.
We must not forget about energy management systems in buildings, which can significantly reduce the heat and electricity requirements of buildings.
– All this together will reduce the importance of coal and gas for the heating sector – concludes Pavel Orlof.
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