- Diphtheria is a dangerous infectious disease that affects most children. Corinform is caused by bacteria
- The symptoms of diphtheria depend on the form of the disease. There are several types of the disease, as they can affect different organs
- How can I prevent diphtheria? First of all, through compulsory vaccinations. It covers children and teenagers from 1 to 19 years old in our country
Diphtheria. Symptoms of a dangerous infectious disease
Diphtheria is a dangerous infectious diseasemost common in children. Corinform is caused by bacteria. This disease is very serious. Diphtheria can even be fatal. This causes suffocation, heart failure and neurological complications.
The disease is spread by airborne droplets or by direct contact with a sick, carrier, healed person, or by indirect contact with infected objects (knives, utensils or food). In rare cases, the infection occurs in contact with animals such as cats, dogs or horses.
It should be noted that a sick person can be contagious two days before the onset of symptoms, during the disease, as well as a few weeks after its occurrence.
The bacterium enters the body through the nose or mouth and then occupies the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. The incubation period for diphtheria usually lasts two to five days.
The most common symptoms of diphtheria are:
- high temperature,
- sore throat,
- bad breath,
- enlarged lymph nodes,
- high heart rate
- low blood pressure,
- changes in the nasopharynx,
- difficulty swallowing
- anorexia or
- pale skin.
Symptoms depend on the form of the disease. whom Diphtheria can affect many organs, There are several types. Here they are:
- pharyngeal diphtheria (also known as diphtheria; it is the most common form of the disease);
- nasal diphtheria;
- laryngeal diphtheria (also known as angina, croup);
- toxic diphtheria;
- malignant diphtheria;
- fulminant diphtheria.
The disease begins with the formation of strongly adhering gray, transparent or black necrotic lesions in the tonsils and pharyngeal mucosa, which bleed when they try to separate.
Diphtheria. Treatment – how is it going?
Diphtheria is not easy to treat. Early diagnosis is important not only for the outcome of treatment, but also for life. Therefore, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible when disturbing symptoms appear. All diphtheria patients require hospital treatment.
The diagnosis is based on a laboratory test. A swab is taken from the throat to detect the presence of corineform bacteria.
Treatment of diphtheria is the injection of a single dose of serum containing diphtheria antitoxin (diphtheria serum). Treatment with antibiotics (eg, penicillin) is of secondary importance. This treatment is used when there is a parallel infection of the throat, such as streptococci.
On the other hand, if the patient’s airway is blocked, intubation or tracheotomy is performed. These are treatments that prevent suffocation of the infected.
Diphtheria can persist in patients of varying degrees and severity. There are many life-threatening complications – airway obstruction or inflammation of the heart muscle.
In addition, diphtheria can cause, for example, pneumonia or soft palate paralysis.
Diphtheria prevents vaccination
How can I prevent diphtheria? First of all, through compulsory vaccinations. It covers children and teenagers from 1 to 19 years old in our country.
Children should be vaccinated as part of the Protective Vaccine Program against diphtheria in the first, second, six and fourteen years (combined diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccination). However, at the age of nineteen, adolescents receive a combined diphtheria and tetanus vaccine.
In contrast, children who are contraindicated for pertussis vaccination will receive a combined vaccine against diphtheria and tetanus.
The epidemiological situation with diphtheria in the European Union is stable. It is possible due to the high level of immunity. Diphtheria is currently unvaccinated, but can pose a threat to those traveling abroad (Asia or Africa). In countries with overpopulation and poor sanitation, diphtheria is more likely to occur.
The cause of the epidemic was diphtheria
Resistance to diphtheria decreases over timetherefore, booster doses are recommended for adults every 10 years. This is especially true for travelers and those in contact with people from countries with endemic diphtheria.
Adults planning to travel to countries where diphtheria is known should consider completing their vaccinations before traveling. In this case, contact your travel doctor or tropical medicine doctor. The visit should take place 6-8 weeks before the planned visit.
Before mass vaccination, diphtheria was the cause of the epidemic. It was characterized by high mortality. Suffice it to say that in the 50s of the last century, about 40,000 people were registered in our country. diseases and 3 min. deaths from diphtheria every year.
Mortality from diphtheria is about 5-10%. Children under 5 and people over 40 (20%) are the most vulnerable. Without specialist treatment, this ratio rises to 50%.
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