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In Over the next five years, two Internet networks could emerge – one led by China and the other by the United States.

PAP

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that providing free internet access is a priority. According to the 2015 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), by 2030, everyone should have a secure and affordable internet connection, including the use of digital services. But the bitter truth is that digital technology is not for everyone. In fact, 40 percent. At present, the world’s population does not have access to the Internet. In 2019, about 87 percent of it was used. people in developed countries and only 19 percent. in the least developed countries.

The pandemic has accelerated the development of the Internet

Symptomatically, international discussions speak of management. management) The internet is not about government over the internet government). Cyberspace and what happens there goes beyond a centralized decision-making body. “Governance” refers to a multicenter system in which the Internet is not the product of any institutional hierarchy, but requires transnational cooperation. Multifunctional and decentralized Internet means that different actors must be involved in its management.

The Internet has spread spontaneously around the world without the guidance and control of states or intergovernmental bodies. It was a spontaneous and spontaneous process, it did not create any new rules of international law. The Internet is ownerless, and because it crosses borders, no government has sole authority over it. However, national governments and large technology corporations can have a significant impact on the availability and functionality of the Internet, both locally and internationally, from a user perspective.

We can see how the Internet is fragmented, fragmented, and exposed to regional and political influences, which limit users’ access to information depending on their place of residence.

Digital sovereignty is a topical issue these days. Initially, the Internet crossed borders and gave free access to all resources. Some countries are now trying to expand national governments at the expense of business and civil society. We can see how the Internet is fragmented, fragmented, and exposed to regional and political influences, which limit users’ access to information depending on their place of residence. Therefore, it is already talking about a fragmented internet. divide – to split, to split).

Splinternet is often referred to as a model in which the West and the rest of the world operate in various areas of the Internet. According to another definition, the splinter is the Balkans of the network in the sense that states try to protect their national identity in cyberspace, to exercise sovereign power over the Internet within their jurisdictions.

Some (including Russia and China) support this approach as a necessary adjustment to globalization; others (generally the West) fear that universal goods such as online freedom and openness or cross-border e-commerce (e-commerce) may be at risk. Putting the Internet under the influence of an authoritarian state must have catastrophic consequences for innovation, trade, democracy and human rights.

From the user’s point of view, the most important consequence of splintering (in some cases already existing) would be to restrict access to information. Leading examples of the national Internet include China’s Great Firewall, North Korea’s Kwangmyong, Iran’s National Information Network and Russia’s RuNeti.

From the user’s point of view, the most important consequence of splintering (in some cases already existing) would be to restrict access to information.

Kieron O’Hara and Wendy Hall, authors of The Four Internet: Information, Geopolitics, and Cyberspace Management, say today’s Internet is reminiscent of the four “digital empires of the kingdom.” [Cztery internety: dane, geopolityka i zarządzanie cyberprzestrzenią], Published in August 2021 by Oxford University Publishing House. Behind these “kingdoms” are models proposed by specific geopolitical actors. The first is Silicon Valley with the ideal of openness and freedom. The second is Washington, DC, with a business-oriented approach. Third is Brussels with the restoration of privacy and human rights. And finally, the fourth – Beijing and its paternalistic traditions. What is surprising, according to the authors, is the absence of Moscow, which has no idea about the Internet and sees the Internet only as a political tool.

“We are not saying that everything is dictated by governments. Internet management is also used by companies, supranational organizations, etc. affects. Not all aspects of the Chinese Internet are dictated by the government. You should also consider Tencent, Ant Financial, Huawei and most of the Chinese, “O’Hara and Hall wrote. Are you sure?

A meeting of the World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA) was held in Geneva in early March. Every four years, the body decides on the next mandate of the Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T), the standardization body of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) – the United Nations ICT Agency. During the meeting, China renewed its initiative to build an Internet with a centralized architecture in 2019.

Beijing wants to introduce a new IT protocol that will move towards network centralization: tracking communications, decrypting and monitoring, blocking or forcing traffic to selected websites on any device connected to the network.

Beijing wants to introduce a new IT protocol that will move towards network centralization: tracking communications, decrypting and monitoring, blocking or forcing traffic to selected websites on any device connected to the network. It is, of course, a matter of deepening control over the flow of information and data transmission, although China justifies its desire for change in terms of security. This new system would not be compatible with existing IP addresses and would require the introduction of new infrastructure around the world. This discrepancy raises concerns about the fragmentation of the Internet, because even if all countries comply with China’s proposal, the unequal application means that different IP addresses will continue to operate for years. The latest IP change took place at the beginning of the 21st century and has not yet been completed.

China is tightening the high-tech screw

The Chinese Internet is currently criticized as an unregulated area dominated by large American corporations. As you know, Chinese Internet architecture is already one of the most complex censorship mechanisms in the world today. China’s plan is to launch the new system by 2025 and fully implement it by 2035. Russia welcomes this step, as stated in a joint statement of the two countries earlier this year. “The parties (…) consider that attempts to regulate national segments of the Internet and restrict their sovereign rights in order to ensure their security are unacceptable. (…) Express their desire to speak unanimously at the United Nations Working Group on Information Technology Security, ‘the statement said.

China’s initiative comes at a time when one of the consequences of the war in Ukraine is a cyber confrontation between Russia and the EU. This prophesies that by 2026 the world will be divided into two competing Internet networks. Chinese applications are already widely used in India, Southeast Asia, South America, the Middle East and even Africa. Can the idea of ​​a splinternet come true?

PAP

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